Theories of Management


Managing is a process in which an organizational leader coordinates all of the resources of an organization in order to achieve a desired outcome. This can include filling different positions with the appropriate people, deciding on salaries, or arranging for the efficient use of machinery and other resources. Management is also a dynamic process, which helps to keep employees up to speed with changes in the organization’s environment.

The first comprehensive theories of management were published around 1920. The concept of management has expanded to include different aspects and disciplines. Many of the key managerial functions have been studied by Henry Mintzberg in the early 1970s. His study has had a lasting impact on the nature of managerial work, and it has continued to influence management today.

Mintzberg’s study defined four key management functions. Planning, coordinating, leading, and controlling were the most important. He noted that these functions were assigned to different levels of managerial hierarchy. Using a pyramid diagram, he outlined the different levels.

Planning involves generating a set of plans and action steps for a specific purpose. Planning also involves gathering and analyzing information and creating a structure for the goal. In a more formal sense, planning refers to the process of calculating resources in advance. This could include materials, financial resources, and personnel.

Leading involves directing and motivating people to achieve a particular goal. Leading is also related to the process of coordinating, as it involves creating a structure for a goal. Finally, controlling is the process of ensuring that an organization does not waste resources. Controlling is also related to the process of organizing, as it involves creating a structure for the goal.

In the early 1900s, management was seen as a way of planning and organizing processes, and as a way of using labor. Management also meant quality control. This led to the creation of formal management education at colleges. As more and more companies became specialized, demand for skilled managers increased.

Aside from these, management also consists of certain ideologies and concepts. These include the concept of efficiency, which means doing a task correctly and with minimum cost. Other theories of management include the concept of innovation. These theories put more value on the concept of motivating people to accomplish their work.

Management is also seen as the management of resources and productivity. It involves using limited resources in a dynamic world. A company’s profitability depends on its managerial resources. It also involves managing employee performance and deciding on social initiatives and financial incentives.

The term management has become popular in the United States in the early twentieth century. It was introduced by Harvard Business School, which offered the first MBA in 1921. Management was also associated with military culture. This led to the creation of a corporate elite. It was also influenced by the theories of economics, psychology, and sociology.

As a result, management is now thought of as a synthesis of four approaches to authority. Although it is hard to define management in its entirety, the process of management is an important part of the evolution of the world.